We accept a manuscript on the understanding that it is reporting unpublished work and that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. The manuscript should be original work of authors and correspondence author will act as guarantor. All manuscripts received will be duly acknowledged.


Review Procedure

Submitted manuscripts undergo an initial review by the editorial team for originality, technical quality, and compliance with the journal’s guidelines. Manuscripts not submitted according to instructions will be returned to the authors for correction before beginning the peer-review process.

Submissions that are suitable for further processing undergo double blind peer-review. Such manuscripts are sent to at least two experts in fields related to their topics for peer-review, and the reviewers’ comments and recommendations are communicated to the authors concerned. Revised manuscripts are assessed for adequacy of responses to the suggestions and criticisms made by reviewers, and those found acceptable by the Editor-in-Chief are published in the next issue of the journal.


Manuscript types

The types of manuscripts we routinely accept include: original research article, review article, case reports, short communication, research letter, letter to the editor, and correspondence. The specifications are as indicated in the table below.

S/N Type of manuscript Format of abstract / Word limit Word limit of manuscript (excluding tables, figures and references) Total number of references
1 Original research article Structured /Maximum of 250 Maximum of 3000 [Max of 7 tables/figures] Maximum of 40
2 Review article Unstructured (but systematic review should be structured) Maximum of 5000 [Max of 10 tables/figures] Maximum of 60
3 Case reports Unstructured / Maximum of 250 Maximum of 2000 [Maximum of 5 tables/figures] Maximum of 15
4 Short communication Structured / Maximum of 250 Maximum of 2000 Maximum of 10
5 Research letter Unstructured / Maximum of 150 Maximum of 1000 [Only 1 table/figure] Maximum of 10
6 Letter to the editor NA Maximum of 500
7 Correspondence NA Maximum of 500


All authors should have made substantial contributions to the conception and design of the study; data collection analysis and interpretation; drafting and critical revising of manuscript for important intellectual content; and final approval of the version to be submitted.




Preparation of Manuscript

All manuscripts should be prepared in conformity with the Uniform requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) [Available at:].

Manuscripts should be written in English and typed in Arial, Font size 11, and with a spacing of 1.5.

Research articles should include the following: title, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results (to include tables and figures), discussion, conclusion, limitations, acknowledgements, and references. Each of title to discussion should begin on a fresh page.


Title page 

The title page should be the first page of the manuscript; it should contain an informative title, and the first name, initial and last name (i.e., surname) of each author (e.g., Brown E Morrison). Enter the authors’ affiliation addresses below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the appropriate address. Also specify the corresponding author (who is responsible for handling the correspondence at all stages of peer review publication) and the corresponding e-mail and postal address.


The title page should also contain a running title for the article (maximum of 10 words), word count for abstract, word count for text, and total number of tables and figures. It should also contain information on source of funding (e.g., Funding: Nil), and conflict of interest (e.g., Conflict of Interest: None declared)


The abstract should be on the second page of the manuscript, it must be concise and factual (maximum of 250 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. Although, an unstructured abstract is acceptable, it should contain information on the problem statement, the aim of the study, the methods used, the relevant results, and a brief conclusion.


Keywords: About 3 to 6 keywords should be provided below the abstract.



The introduction should give a short and clear account of the background of the study, the problem statement, the rationale (or justification) for the study and its aim and objectives. Only previous studies that are relevant to the problem being addressed in the present study should be cited. 


Materials and Methods

This should contain information on the study design, study population, study centre or area (i.e., where the study was conducted) and when the study was conducted. For quantitative research, authors should supply information on sample size estimation, sampling technique, inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as the method and instrument of data collection. If an instrument was adopted or adapted, the source(s) should be cited. The statistical tool used to analyze the data should be mentioned. All manuscripts of studies involving experimental animals or human subjects should contain a statement on ethical approval from appropriate ethics committee.


Authors are expected to prepare their manuscript based on the International Committee of Medical Journals Editors guideline on “Uniform requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals” (Available from: Various guidelines regarding reporting of different types of research are also available for authors to use as guide (as indicated in the table below):

Type of study Guideline Link to reference
Clinical trials CONSORT
Clinical trials ARRIVE https://
Systematic Reviews and Meta- analysis QUOROM
Epidemiological Observational Studies STROBE
Meta-analysis of Epidemiological Observation Studies MOOSE

Results should be presented in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and figures, giving the main or most important findings first. Authors should not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or figures; only emphasize or highlight the important observations.


Each table should be inserted immediately after the text where it was reported. Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and the number should be followed by a brief descriptive caption, occupying not more than two lines, at the head of the table (e.g. Table 1: Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents). Tables should be appropriately cited in the manuscript (i.e., the number of the table concerned should be indicated in the text where it was reported). Tables should normally be self-explanatory, with necessary descriptions provided underneath the table. Each column should have a heading and the units of measurement should be given in parentheses in the heading. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.


Each figure should be inserted immediately after the text where it was reported. Figures should be numbers consecutively followed by a descriptive caption below the figure (e.g., Figure 1: Main reason for not complying with occupational safety practices). Figures should be appropriately cited in the manuscript (i.e., the number of the figure concerned should be indicated in the text where it was reported). Authors are encouraged to use color to enhance the impact and clarity of figures. Figures should be prepared at a minimum of 300 dpi, and should be pasted as JPEG in the manuscript.

However, use of tables and figures should be kept to a minimum. Total number of tables and figures should not be more than 7.


The purpose of the discussion is to present a brief and pertinent interpretation of the results against the background of existing knowledge.



This should contain a clear statement of how the study advances knowledge and understanding in the field. 


Limitation(s) of the study

The limitations encountered (that could affect the validity of the findings of the study) should be stated, as well as the actions taken to overcome them. 


All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in the acknowledgements section.


Harvard referencing style should be used; in the text, a reference identified by means of an author’s name should be followed by the date of the reference in parentheses; for example: (Alam, 2002).

For two authors, list both authors; for example: (Brown and James, 2016). When there are more than two authors, only the first author’s name should be mentioned, followed by ‘et al.’ In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter; for example: (Morison, 2016a; Morison, 2016b).

Two or more citations in the same parentheses should be arranged alphabetically not chronologically; for example (Abraham et al., 2016; David et al., 2013).

In the references list, write the authors’ names and initials followed by the year of publication. All authors should be quoted even if they are more than six. The reference list is arranged alphabetically based on the surnames of the respective first authors.

Alam M (2002):  Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among Health Workers on needle stick injuries.  Annals of Saudi Med. 22: 5 – 6.

Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Kasper DL (2001).  Principles of Internal Medicine.  15thed. New York: Mc. Graw Hill. Pp. 588 – 591.

Nagao Y, Kawaguchi T, Yanalu K, Ide I, Haradu M, Kumashin R, Sata M (2005). Causal relationship between Hepatitis C core and the development of type 2 diabetes in Hepatitis C virus hyperendemic area: a pilot study. Int. J. Mol. Med. 16: 109-114.

Other types of manuscripts (including reviews, case reports and correspondence) should be prepared as described for original research papers (i.e., with respect to text style, tables, figures and references.

Please click here to download Manuscript template

Manuscript submission
Manuscript can be submitted through the journal’s online manuscript submission platform, or sent as an email attachment (together with the scanned copy of the completed ‘Submission / Copyright Transfer Agreement’ form signed by the corresponding author) to

Please click here to download Submission / Copyright Transfer Agreement form


Publication Charges
There is no submission or processing charge; authors are required to pay a publication fee of $300 for articles that are accepted for publication. Publication of an article in this journal is not based on the author’s ability to pay the charges, and acceptance to pay the publication fee does not guarantee acceptance of a paper for publication. Authors may request for discount in advance under special circumstances (stating the reasons for doing so). Authors will receive information about payment of publication fees at the time of acceptance of an article.


Prior to publication, a proof is sent to the corresponding author. Authors are advised to read the proof and correct minor typographical or grammatical errors. Authors should return proofs to the editorial office within 3 days.


Once proofs are received at the editorial office, the manuscripts are usually included in the next issue of the journal. The article will thereafter be published on the journal’s website.

Publication Notification

After the article is made available on the journal’s website, a publication notice is sent to the corresponding author with links to the issue and article.